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Electric water pump



Electric water pump is a new type of water pump that uses piezoelectric materials as the power device, completely realizes electronization from control to drive, and completely controls liquid transmission with electronic integrated system, so as to realize the adjustability and accuracy of liquid transmission. Electric water pump has the characteristics of flexible control, energy saving and convenient use. It is more and more widely used in traditional vehicles and new energy vehicles.


The electric water pump of new energy vehicles is a key component of the vehicle cooling system. It is usually a 12V or 24V Electric coolant pump. The brushless motor drives the impeller to rotate, which increases the liquid pressure and drives the circulation of water, coolant and other liquids, so as to realize the heat dissipation of coolant.


Automobile electric water pump is mainly used for vehicle preheating system, automobile engine cooling cycle, hydrogen fuel cell thermal management system, new energy vehicle drive system, electric vehicle battery cooling system, and cooling system of automobile, motorcycle, new energy vehicle, hybrid bus, RV, racing car, street car, etc.


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Want to learn more?


  1. R & D, design and production of Electric water pump

  2. How do electric water pumps work?

  3. Characteristics of electronic water pump

  4. Application of electric water pump technology in internal combustion engine

  5. Application of electric water pump technology in new energy electric vehicles

  6. Information and troubleshooting methods to be mastered in case of Electric water pump failure.

  7. How to repair the electric water pump



R & D, design and production of Electric water pump

Dongguan Shenpeng Electronics Co., Ltd was found in 2012 and is specialized in brush-less DC water pumps. As a global BLDC water pump solutions specialist, it integrates R&D, manufacture with sales.The products are mainly applied to New-energy vehicle, mattress, home appliance (water heater, dish washer, coffee machine, water dispenser), smart toilet, cosmetic/medical equipment, machine tool equipment, air conditioning base station, PC, LED cooling system, aquarium etc.


Shenpeng was the earliest company that managed to produce the brushless DC water pumps. It is located in Changping, Dongguan and covers an area of 18000㎡. With an in-house CNAS standard laboratory, 300-thousand-grade dust-free workshop and 10 professional production lines. The annual production capacity is more than 5 million sets of water pumps and it is one of the largest manufacturer of BLDC water pump in China. It won many honorable titles such as High-tech Enterprise, Multiplication Enterprise etc.



How do electric water pumps work?

1. Working principle of automotive brushless electronic water pump

The brushless motor drives the impeller to rotate to increase the liquid pressure and drive the circulation of water, coolant and other liquids, so as to realize the heat dissipation of coolant.


The function of brushless electronic water pump in automobile:

Its main function is that during the operation of the car, the heat generated by a large amount of loss in the motor diffuses into the surrounding air through the surface of the motor, which will cause irreversible damage to electronic components. Therefore, usually, the outside of the motor will be covered with pipes containing water or coolant, and the excess heat will be taken away through the circulation of the water pump to ensure the normal operation of electronic components.


2. Working principle of automotive mechanical and electronic water pump:

It is the circular motion of the motor, which makes the diaphragm inside the water pump reciprocating through the mechanical device, so as to compress and stretch the air in the pump chamber (fixed volume), and form a positive pressure at the drain under the action of the one-way valve. A vacuum is formed at the pumping port, resulting in a pressure difference with the external atmospheric pressure. Under the action of pressure difference, the water pressure is fed into the water inlet and then discharged from the water outlet. Under the action of the kinetic energy transmitted by the motor, the water is continuously inhaled and discharged to form a relatively stable flow.


Role of automotive mechanical and electronic water pump:

The main function is to forcibly cool the engine oil at the turbine shaft after the car stalls. The outside of the turbine shaft of the lubrication and cooling system of the turbine is wrapped by oil. Since the oil inlet is much larger than the oil outlet, an oil film will be established between the turbine shaft and the shell under the action of oil pressure to lubricate the turbine shaft and take away part of the heat of the turbine (the heat taken by the oil is finally dissipated through the oil pan and oil cooler); The outside of the turbine shell in contact with the engine oil is wrapped by the cooling water. Similarly, since the water inlet is much larger than the water outlet, there will be a certain pressure on the cooling water between the shells here, but the function of this pressure is mainly to ensure that the cooling water is in good contact with the shell and obtain sufficient cooling effect. 


Characteristics of electronic water pump


Electronic water pump is a new type of water pump, which uses piezoelectric materials as the power device, completely realizes electronization from control to drive, and completely controls liquid transmission with an electronic integrated system, so as to realize the adjustability and accuracy of liquid transmission.


(1) The driving mode uses piezoelectric material as the power device, which subverts the traditional motor drive.

(2) It can accurately transport liquid and is used in liquid quantitative transmission, quantitative control and other fields.

(3) The speed of conveying liquid is adjustable.

(4) The pump body is equipped with an operation panel. All operations are completed through electronic buttons. All digital settings are equipped with digital display, which is intuitive and accurate.

(5) Small size and light weight.


The advent of the electronic water pump will bring the micro water pump industry into a new era. It is a new reform of the micro water pump industry and has far-reaching significance in the development history of the micro water pump industry.



Application of electric water pump technology in internal combustion engine

(1) Application of main cooling water pump of internal combustion engine.

The speed of the electric water pump is no longer directly related to the engine. The electronic control unit (ECU) collects parameters such as engine speed, load and water temperature through the sensor and compares them with the optimal water temperature under the calibrated corresponding working conditions, so as to control the speed of the water pump and realize the closed-loop control of liquid temperature. Its advantage is that the working temperature of the engine can be controlled in the best range, so as to improve the thermal efficiency of the engine and reduce fuel consumption, and realize the rapid warm-up under low temperature conditions. The speed of the electric water pump is controlled independently. Under the condition of non maximum cooling demand, it does not need full power operation. The maximum power and average power of the electric water pump are much lower than those of the mechanical water pump.

 

The power of the electric water pump is mainly distributed in 200 ~ 600 W. for vehicles equipped with ordinary generators and ordinary 12 V batteries, the power consumption and current in this power section are still too large. The electric energy driving the water pump is generated by the generator driven by the engine, and the multi-stage conversion of energy brings great efficiency loss. Because the electric water pump involves many fields of technology such as electronics, software, motor and hydraulic machinery, it is difficult. The failure of the water pump will also lead to the serious consequences of engine damage, so its reliability is highly required.

 

(2) Application of electric water pump in turbocharger cooling circuit.

Due to the contact with high-temperature exhaust gas and high-speed rotation of the turbocharger, the temperature at the turbine end will reach more than 600 ℃, while the working temperature of the sealing ring needs to be controlled below 230 ℃, and the bearing needs to be controlled below 150 ℃, otherwise the turbocharger will be damaged quickly, so effective cooling is the key. The turbocharger is generally designed with a liquid cooling circuit, but after the engine is shut down, the mechanical main water pump will also stop working. There is no cooling of circulating liquid, and the hot immersion will cause damage to the turbocharger bearing, shaft and seal. In order to solve this problem, a 15 ~ 30 # w auxiliary electric water pump is generally configured in the turbocharger cooling circuit to continue to provide cooling for the turbocharger after the engine is shut down.

 

(3) Application of electric water pump in intake intercooling circuit.

Due to the high-temperature heat conduction at the turbocharger turbine end and the heat generated by air compression, the air temperature after passing through the turbocharger compressor can reach 150 ℃, while the air temperature entering the engine should generally be controlled below 50 ℃, which requires cooling the pressurized air. At present, the mainstream technology adopts liquid cooling and air cooling to cool the intake air. In a supercharged engine equipped with a mechanical main water pump, a small electric water pump of 30 ~ 60 W is often configured in the liquid cooling circuit of the intercooler to control the intake air temperature. The use of electric water pump in intake intercooling system can solve the cooling demand of turbocharger through pipeline arrangement. In engines using external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology, the liquid cooling circuit of EGR cooler is generally connected in parallel with the intake intercooling circuit to realize exhaust gas cooling.

 

(4) Thermal management system of internal combustion engine based on electric water pump.

After the engine uses the electric main water pump, it can realize the shutdown cooling function. On this basis, the thermal management system is equipped with an electronic control valve group that can control the flow direction and flow of the cooling circuit to match the needs of each cooling circuit. Without multiple water pumps, it can better meet the needs of thermal management of each part of the engine. At present, GM has used this technology in CSS series new engines. However, its thermal management system and electric water pump are designed and arranged separately and connected through pipelines. The integrated design of pump and valve can save the installation pipeline, optimize the layout space and reduce the pipeline interface, which is conducive to the reduction of cost, which may become the development trend of engine thermal management technology in the future.

 

 

Application of electric water pump technology in new energy electric vehicles

The application of electric water pump in electric vehicle is mainly the liquid cooling circuit of driving system and the liquid cooling circuit of power battery. The drive system includes drive motor, motor controller and reducer. When the drive motor operates under heavy load, it will produce a lot of heat, and the high-power device IGBT in the motor controller will also generate a lot of heat. Too high temperature will lead to the decline of motor and electronic control efficiency, and out of control temperature will lead to the serious consequences of rapid burning. In order to ensure good lubrication in the high-speed reducer, it is also necessary to control the lubricating oil temperature through the heat exchanger. Therefore, the drive system is generally designed with a liquid cooling circuit, and its coolant temperature is generally required to be controlled within 90 ℃. The power of the electric water pump used in this system is generally 40 ~ 60 W.

 

The lithium-ion power battery of electric vehicle will generate heat during charging and discharging, especially during fast charging and high-power discharging, its optimal working temperature is 15 ~ 35 ℃, too low and too high temperature will reduce the charging and discharging performance and cycle life of the power battery, and thermal runaway can also lead to spontaneous combustion of the power battery. Therefore, the power batteries are designed with a thermal management system for liquid circulation. The liquid circulation circuit has a heat exchanger for heat exchange with the air conditioning system and an electric heater for heating the liquid. The electric water pump drives the liquid circulation flow to realize the heating and cooling of the power battery. The temperature of the power battery is controlled at 10 ~ 55 ℃, the temperature of the liquid in the battery thermal management system is generally lower than 50 ℃, and the power of the electric water pump is generally 50 ~ 120 W.


There are also chargers, inverters, DC transformers and other components in electric vehicles, which also need to use liquid cooling system. Due to the large difference in the temperature range between the driving system and the battery thermal management control, the same cooling system cannot be used, so more than two electric water pumps are generally used. The difference between the electric water pump for electric vehicle and the electric water pump for internal combustion engine is that the working medium temperature of the internal combustion engine water pump can reach 120 ℃ and the ambient temperature can reach 150 ℃, and its high-temperature reliability requirements are very high. In addition to working when the vehicle is running, the water pump of electric vehicle should also work during charging, and its service life is required to be higher.


Information and troubleshooting methods to be mastered in case of Electric water pump failure.


ItemFaultDetailed description of the faultReasonSolution
1Not working

1. Motor and motor controller report high temperature;

2. Motor speed limit, icon appears;

3. After driving for two or three kilometers, you can no longer accelerate forward;

4. No warm air;

5. The battery temperature is high when charging;
1. Whether there is a lack of antifreeze;1. Add antifreeze;
2. Whether the water pump insurance is burned out;2. Replace the water pump insurance;
3. Is the voltage normal?3. Check the circuit;
4. Whether the water pump connector is loose;4. Re-plug and unplug the water pump connector;
5. Whether the connector is oxidized/ablated;5. Replace the connector;
6. Whether there is air in the pipe;6. Exhaust air at the water outlet;
7. Whether the PWM control signal is lost;7. Check the vehicle information output;
8. Whether the CAN signal is lost;8. Confirm the ECU signal output;
2LeakageWater pump dripping / leaking / seepage;1. Whether the water inlet and outlet clamps are loose;1. Tighten the loose clamp;
2. Whether the pump head is cracked;2. Replace the water pump;
3. Whether there is liquid leakage between the pump head and the casing;3. Replace the water pump;
3loud noiseBy comparison, it is found that the pump is noisy;1.The friction noise is "rustling";1. Replace the water pump;
2. The "hum" is a resonance sound;2. Adjust the fixed position of the water pump;
4How to judge the normal operation of the water pump1. Observe the return pipe of the expansion pot, there is antifreeze backflow;
2. When you touch the surface of the water pump, there is obvious vibration;
3. Listen with your ears, when the water pump is running, it makes a sound of "um, um, um";



How to repair the electric water pump

The water pump is one of the important components of the automobile engine cooling system. The function of the water pump is to pressurize the coolant to ensure that it circulates in the cooling system and accelerate the heat dissipation. As a long-term operation device, the water pump will also fail during use. How to repair these failures?


If the water pump fails or is damaged during the use of the car, the following inspections and repairs can be done.

1. Check the pump body and pulley for wear and damage, and replace if necessary. Check whether the pump shaft is bent, the journal is worn, and the shaft end threads are damaged. Check whether the blades on the impeller are broken and whether the shaft hole is severely worn. Check the wear degree of the water seal and bakelite gasket, if it exceeds the usage limit, replace it with a new one. Check the wear of the bearing, and measure the bearing clearance with a watch. If it exceeds 0.10mm, replace the bearing with a new one.


2. After the pump is taken out, it can be decomposed in sequence. After disassembly, the parts should be cleaned, and then checked one by one to see if there are any defects such as cracks, damage and wear. If there are serious defects, they should be replaced.


3. Repair of water seal and seat: If the water seal is worn and grooved, it can be smoothed with emery cloth. If it is too worn, it should be replaced; if the ice seat has rough scratches, it can be repaired with a flat reamer or on a lathe. A new water seal group should be replaced during overhaul

pieces.


4. Welding repair is allowed when the pump body has the following damages: the length is within 30mm, and the crack does not extend to the bearing seat hole; the flange that joins the cylinder head has a broken part; the oil seal seat hole is damaged. The bending of the water pump shaft should not exceed 0.05mm, otherwise it should be replaced. Damaged impeller blades should be replaced. If the hole diameter of the water pump shaft is seriously worn, it should be replaced or repaired with a bushing.


5. Check whether the water pump bearing rotates flexibly or has abnormal noise. If there is a problem with the bearing, it should be replaced.


6. After the pump is assembled, turn it by hand, the pump shaft should not be stuck, and the impeller and the pump casing should not be rubbed. Then check the water pump drainage, if there is a problem, check the cause and eliminate it. If the water pump fails, the coolant will not be able to reach the corresponding place, and its performance will not be effectively exerted, which will eventually affect the working condition of the engine. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the inspection of the water pump.


Contact

Address: Dapu Industrial Zone, Gangzi Village, Changping Town, Dongguan City

Tel: +86-769-82550950

E-mail: sp005@dgshenpeng.com

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