Key factors affecting engine cooling water pump
As an important part of the engine water cooling system, the applicability and reliability of the engine cooling water pump have been paid more and more attention by the design, manufacture and users. Especially with the continuous improvement of the engine quality, the working space of the pump has been further limited, the running speed has been continuously broken through, the failure of components and cavitation damage have seriously restricted the development of the engine cooling water pump.
As the "heart" of the cooling system, the engine cooling water pump has a harsh working environment and extremely limited space. In order to avoid disassembly, assembly and maintenance during the overhaul period, the working life of the water pump should be equal to or multiple than the engine overhaul period. Therefore, the reliability of the engine cooling water pump and its components, such as water seal, bearing, pump shaft and impeller, is highly required, and the same service life of the engine and pump is required. However, due to the compact assembly structure, the engine cooling water pump widely uses shaft connected bearings to replace the common shaft and bearing combinations in the centrifugal pump, which is very easy to cause the pump shaft to break due to insufficient strength. The constant change of speed changes the axial force generated by the cooling fan and water pump impeller, and the clearance between the pump shaft and the support will increase the noise and vibration, which will adversely affect the operating performance of the pump and the water seal work. Especially when the engine cooling water pump works in the high temperature environment, the working conditions of the shaft seal are very bad, and the seal failure is very easy to occur. At the same time, in order to ensure sufficient circulating water volume, a certain head and an appropriate speed, realize the circulation of coolant under any working condition and take away the engine heat, the matching of multiple parameters and high requirements poses more challenges to the reliable operation of the engine cooling water pump. Therefore, reliability has become a key factor that restricts the quality and life-cycle cost of engine cooling system.
2. Cavitation damage
Compared with ordinary centrifugal pumps, engine cooling water pumps are more likely to suffer from cavitation and cavitation accompanied by vibration and noise due to the influence of temperature, working conditions and speed changes. The pump head, efficiency and other performance decline rapidly. If the pump operates under cavitation conditions for a long time, the impeller will be eroded by the strong impact of bubble collapse, or even damaged by perforation. Honeycomb pits on the surface of engine cooling water pump blades and pits near the volute tongue are common cavitation damage.
In addition, the cavitation of the engine cooling water pump will also corrode and damage the flow passage components, accelerate the failure of components, etc. The cavitation damage of engine cooling water pump has become an important factor to shorten the service life of the pump and generate vibration and noise, which seriously affects the normal operation of the automobile cooling system. Therefore, improving its cavitation resistance is the first problem to be considered to ensure the reliable operation of the cooling system.
The poor working environment of the engine cooling water pump makes the reliability and cavitation damage of the pump particularly prominent, which seriously affects the safe, stable and reliable operation of the cooling system. How to improve the reliability of engine cooling water pump and study the cavitation mechanism are of great significance to the development of engine cooling system.
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